Turkey has a dynamic economic development and rapid population growth. Turkey has seven regions, all different from each other. The western part of Turkey has cosmopolitan centers of industry, finance, and trade especially in the major cities, whereas the eastern part of the country is relatively underdeveloped. Over the last few decades, numbers of Turkish citizens living in the eastern part of the country have migrated to the western part of the country. This caused some problems in energy utilization and environmental pollution in the western regions of Turkey. For this reason, in the coming decades, global environmental issues could significantly affect patterns of energy use in Turkey. Worldwide, hydropower has a great role in global environmental issues, such as environmental and air pollutions in Turkey. This article deals with the role of hydropower in energy utilization and environmental pollution in Turkey.