Patents on Environmental Technologies and Environmental Sustainability in Spain

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Oyebanji M. O., Castanho R. A., YILMAZ GENÇ S., Kirikkaleli D.

Sustainability (Switzerland), vol.14, no.11, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su14116670
  • Journal Name: Sustainability (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: patents, environmental innovations, sustainability, carbon emissions, Spain
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Through an in-depth evaluation of the potential effectiveness of intellectual property protection on environmental technologies, the aim of the present research is to investigate the effect of patents on environmental innovation, energy use, GDP, and trade openness on environmental deregulation in Spain using nonlinear ARDL techniques. Specifically, the study findings indicate that patents on environmental technologies enhance environ-mental sustainability in Spain, as evidenced by the novel results from the nonlinear ARDL. Secondly, our study reveals that Spain’s growing economy degrades the quality of the environment. Based on the findings of the study, positive changes in trade openness could have positive effects on Spain’s environmental sustainability, suggesting that better productivity, more international trade, and increased economic openness could facilitate an improvement in Spain’s environmental impact. Lastly, this study provides evidence demonstrating that Spain’s environmental quality could suffer due to excessive energy consumption. In the light of this study’s policy recommendations, the policymakers and the Spanish government should encourage collaboration between private and public partnerships on environmental technologies to address global climate change or regional pollution. It is necessary for research and development to contribute to the development of technological progress in the Spanish energy sector; however, promoting patenting should be prioritized. By expanding patent protection, eco-friendly technologies that can combat carbon emissions can be developed swiftly in Spain, which will enable life to be more sustainable by lowering the use of energy and resources. A strong patent protection sys-tem will foster environmentally-friendly technologies and economic development while reducing CO2 emissions in Spain.