Using ZnO nanoparticles, comparisons between sorption and sono-sorption efficiencies, equilibrium and kinetics in Direct Red 23 have been researched under the various experimental conditions. Pseudo-second-order model was practiced for the experimental data. The mechanism of the dye uptake was clarified based on the analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume of the nanoparticles were obtained. The highest Direct Red 23 (DR23) removal efficiencies by sorption and sono-sorption processes were determined as 78.6 and 96.8 %, respectively. Experimental data have been evaluated according to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The mean energies of sorption and sono-sorption processes were calculated to be 16.22 and 25.41 kJ/mol, respectively. Arrhenius equation was used to calculate the activation energies. Delta H degrees and Delta G degrees values indicated that sorption and sonosorption processes were endothermic processes. But, negative free energy values of Delta G degrees indicated that sorption and sono-sorption processes were favoured at high temperatures.