Trace level determination of eleven nervous system-active pharmaceutical ingredients by switchable solvent-based liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with matrix matching calibration strategy

DALGIÇ BOZYİĞİT G. , Ayyildiz M. F. , Chormey D. S. , ENGİN G. , BAKIRDERE S.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.194, no.2, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 194 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-021-09708-5
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: APIs, GC-MS, Nervous system, SS-LPME, Wastewater, HF-LPME, WATER


This study utilized switchable solvent liquid-phase microextraction (SS-LPME) to enrich eleven nervous system active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from aqueous samples for their determination at trace levels by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The analytes selected for the study included APIs utilized in antidepressant, antipsychotic, antiepileptic, and anti-dementia drugs. Parameters of the microextraction method including switchable solvent volume, concentration and volume of the trigger agent (sodium hydroxide), and sample agitation period were optimized univariately to boost extraction efficiency. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits calculated for the analytes were in the range of 0.20-8.0 ng/mL, and repeatability for six replicate measurements as indicated by percent relative standard deviation values were below 10%. Matrix matching calibration strategy was used to enhance quantification accuracy for the analytes. The percent recovery results calculated for the eleven analytes ranged between 86 and 117%.