The axle is one of the most important components of a rail vehicle which transmits the weight of the vehicle to the wheels, meets the vertical and horizontal loads formed during static and dynamic moving, and carries the driving moment and braking moment. The prediction of fatigue failure of axles plays an important role in preventing fatigue fractures. Varying loads on components lead to cumulative failure in the mechanism. In this study, failures in axles of rail vehicles serving the Istanbul Transportation Co. have been investigated. Statistical evaluation of real life values has been performed by taking into account the kilometer and load cycle. Equivalent stresses have been used to derive life equations and diagrams by using one of the cumulative life theories known as the Palmgren-Miner method. Finally, theoretical and practical Wohler diagrams S-N (sigma-N: stress-life) have been plotted to reveal error calculation.