Characterization of Bee Bread Produced with Defined Starter Cultures Mimicking the Natural Fermentation Process

Creative Commons License

Poyraz F., Yalmanci D., İspirli H., DERTLİ E.

Fermentation, vol.9, no.2, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/fermentation9020174
  • Journal Name: Fermentation
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: bee bread, bee pollen, lactic acid bacteria, solid-state fermentation (SSF)
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Bee bread is a product with unique properties for humans and bees that is produced through the fermentation of pollen in the honeycomb, mainly caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains present in the environment. It is a rich source of nutrients such as proteins, polyphenols and vitamins. Despite the potential nutritional value of bee bread, it is consumed at low levels, as harvesting bee bread from the hives is costly and difficult. This study aimed to produce a standard bee bread by using different strains of the fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) Lactobacillus kunkeei and the yeasts Starmeralla magnolia MP-2 and Zygosaccharomyces siamensis MP-14, previously isolated from bee products. In this context, bee bread was produced from pollen by solid-state fermentation using selected FLAB and yeast species, which were then compared with spontaneously developed and commercially available bee bread in terms of microbial stability, physicochemical properties, total phenolic component amounts, in vitro digestibility and amino acid profiles. As a result, it was determined that bee bread made from bee pollen fermented with starter cultures showed improved characteristics than commercial bee bread and was more advantageous in terms of absorption as well as production processes.