Chocolate flow behavior: Composition and process effects


TOKER Ö. S., Pirouzian H. R., PALABIYIK İ., KONAR N.

CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1993782
  • Journal Name: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Keywords: Chocolate, flow behavior, sensory perception, optimize, PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION, RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, MILK CHOCOLATE, DARK CHOCOLATE, YIELD-STRESS, BULK SWEETENERS, SUCROSE, SUGAR, IMPACT, QUALITY
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Chocolate is a non-Newtonian substance, and such substance has different viscosities at different shear rates. Rheological evaluations have become indispensable instruments for characterizing final chocolate, forecasting product efficiency and consumer acceptance. During production, the different steps depend on a well-defined viscosity and yield stress. Furthermore, the characteristics of the final chocolate (the surface and mouth-feel) are directly related to the chocolate's viscous behavior. There is a demand for better understanding the variables affecting chocolates flow behavior. Current research realized great insight into the chocolate flow behavior in different processes such as refining, conching, and tempering. Also, the influence of formulation and particle characteristics on flow behavior of the intermediate product and the final product were discussed. Each stage of the production process: mixing, refining, conching and tempering involves modifications of macroscopic characteristics of the chocolate ingredients thus affecting the rheological attributes of the final product. Particle size distribution and ingredient composition play substantial roles in shaping its flow behavior and sensory perception. The rheological properties of chocolate provide substantial information for food scientists to improve and optimize their products and manufacturing processes. Nowadays, a thorough understanding of chocolate flow behavior is a necessity for food scientists and industry.