Investigation of using possibility of grape pomace in wafer sheet for wheat flour substitution


Altinok E., KURULTAY Ş., Boluk E., Atik D. S. , Kopuk B., Gunes R., ...More

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/ijfs.15687
  • Journal Name: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Bioaccessibility, grape pomace, texture, wafer, DIETARY FIBER, ANTIOXIDANT, POLYPHENOLS, VARIETIES, PROFILES, BISCUITS, QUALITY, BATTER, SKINS

Abstract

In this study, grape pomace (GP), a by-product consisting of grape skins and seeds rich in dietary fibres and polyphenols, was used in wafer sheets at different concentrations [5.00 (GP5), 10.0 (GP10), and 15.0 g 100 g(-1) (GP15)] for the partial replacement of wheat flour (WF) and improve the functionality of wafer sheets. The GP inclusion at concentrations higher than 5.00 g 100 g(-1) significantly affected the texture of sheets as well as the flow behaviour of batters, resulting in softer sheets and more viscous batters (P < 0.05). Moisture contents did not significantly change after GP addition (P > 0.05). After the addition of GP, the L* values decreased and the a* values increased, making the wafers darker (P < 0.05). Moreover, under simulated in vitro digestion conditions, the bioaccessibility of total phenolic compounds in saliva, gastric juice, and intestinal juice was significantly higher than control even at the lowest GP concentration (P < 0.05). Regarding sensory properties, only smoothness and crispness were significantly affected by GP addition, and samples were found to be crisper with higher concentrations of GP. In conclusion, it is possible to partially replace the WF in wafers with GP at a concentration of 5.00 g 100 g(-1) to develop a product with higher functionality and nutrient content.