Detection of Orange Essential Oil, Isopropyl Myristate, and Benzyl Alcohol in Lemon Essential Oil by FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics

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ÇEBİ N., Taylan O., Abusurrah M., SAĞDIÇ O.

FOODS, vol.10, no.1, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/foods10010027
  • Journal Name: FOODS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: FTIR, lemon essential oil, PLSR, PCR, HCA, adulteration, chemometrics


Essential oils are high-valued natural extracts that are involved in industries such as food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. The lemon essential oil (LEO) has high economic importance in the food and beverage industry because of its health-beneficial characteristics and desired flavor properties. LEO, similar to other natural extracts, is prone to being adulterated through economic motivations. Adulteration causes unfair competition between vendors, disruptions in national economies, and crucial risks for consumers worldwide. There is a need for cost-effective, rapid, reliable, robust, and eco-friendly analytical techniques to detect adulterants in essential oils. The current research developed chemometric models for the quantification of three adulterants (orange essential oil, benzyl alcohol, and isopropyl myristate) in cold-pressed LEOs by using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least squares regression (PLSR) based on FTIR spectra. The cold-pressed LEO was successfully distinguished from adulterants by robust HCA. PLSR and PCR showed high accuracy with high R-2 values (0.99-1) and low standard error of cross-validation (SECV) values (0.58 and 5.21) for cross-validation results of the raw, first derivative, and second derivative FTIR spectra. The findings showed that FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analyses has a considerable capability to detect and quantify adulterants in lemon essential oil.