Shaping Learner Contributions via a Combination of Different Resources: Joint Use of ‘Okay’ and Type-specific Questions Oblikovanje učeničkih odgovora kombinacijom različitih izvora: zajednička upotreba riječi okay i specifičnih pitanja

ATAR C., Seedhouse P., Walsh S.

Croatian Journal of Education, vol.24, no.4, pp.1111-1135, 2022 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.15516/cje.v24i4.4467
  • Journal Name: Croatian Journal of Education
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, Sociological abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1111-1135
  • Keywords: acknowledgment tokens, Classroom Interactional Competence, English language teaching, feedback, repair initiation
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


This study aims to investigate the interactional organization of English teachers’ acknowledgment followed by type-specific questions. Shaping learners’ contributions via acknowledgment and type-specific questions is argued to be a part of Classroom Interactional Competence as the 5th skill in language teaching. Hence, this two-step move is studied to achieve a broader understanding of teachers’ interactional repertoire. This study has a qualitative design utilizing Conversation Analysis. Eighteen hours of classroom data from Newcastle University Corpus of Academic Spoken English make up the data. The findings suggest that teachers’ acknowledgment followed by typespecific questions is an indicator of Classroom Interactional Competence, and it is highly dependent upon the task goal (i.e., a pedagogic repair). Contrary to the previous studies, the joint use of acknowledgment is found to shape students’ previous turns by foregrounding achievement rather than closing a topic or indicating a transition. Then, this joint use allows teachers to acknowledge or approve a learner’s utterance on one level while carrying out repair work on another level enabling them to operate on different levels in the complex realm of the classroom.