Some physicochemical and technological properties of cooking water of pulses as a canned industry waste: effect of ultrasound treatment during soaking


Kilicli M., TOKER Ö. S.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING, vol.18, no.2, pp.105-118, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 18 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/ijfe-2021-0245
  • Title of Journal : INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING
  • Page Numbers: pp.105-118
  • Keywords: aquafaba, food waste, soaking kinetics, technological properties, ultrasound, HIGH-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND, CICER-ARIETINUM L., PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES, CHICKPEA, PROTEIN, FLOUR, FOOD, PEA, STABILITY, KINETICS

Abstract

Canned products are important part of human diet and therefore, many types of canned products with high amounts are produced worldwide. During canned production, cooking water of pulses (aquafaba) is an important waste. Therefore, recycling of it is important for sustainability and economic value. In the present study, it was aimed to determine technological properties of aquafabas obtained from canned production. For this aim, chickpea, bean, kidney bean, broad bean, green pea and lentil were used in this study, and conventional soaking and ultrasound soaking was both performed. Aquafaba is a cooking water of pulses not only chickpea and also lentil, pea and bean species. Aquafaba is used for foaming, emulsifying and gelling agent as a plant based food additive. Soaking with ultrasound has shortened the soaking time of all pules as well as increased the D-eff (effective diffusion constant) values. Diffusion is a basic physical mechanism for remove moisture or absorb and also give important information about physical and thermal properties of sample. "Remove moisture" term is using for drying and the other is using for hydration. The relationship between the physical properties of pulses and D-eff values was observed. The protein content of aquafaba on a dry basis changed between 20 and 35% and it has been observed that there are also positive correlation with their foaming properties. Foaming capacities of aquafabas varied between 167 and 567% in conventional soaking, and between 133 and 533% in ultrasonic soaking. In both methods, chickpea aquafaba showed the lowest foaming capacity and stability, while pea had the highest foaming capacity and stability. US process generally decreased the protein content and foaming capacity (FC) of aquafabas. The foam of pea and lentil aquafabas showed higher resistant against to gravity. In contrary to the foaming properties, an increase in emulsifying properties was observed as a result of US. It has been observed that the obtained aquafabas can be used in various products in the food industry thanks to their technological features instead of animal-based ingredients.