© 2019 Society of Dairy TechnologyTraditional kefir grains were collected from distinct parts of Turkey, and their microbial profile was determined. A wide bacterial biota was observed formed by distinct lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in which Lactococcus lactis strains appeared to be dominant. Yeast species were also identified in kefir grains. Significant levels of antifungal and antibacterial activities were monitored in kefir isolates. All tested LAB produced an exopolysaccharide (EPS) containing glucose and galactose, and some strains formed a fructan-type EPS. Importantly, low levels of antibiotic resistance were observed among the kefir isolates.