© 2021 Elsevier LtdThere is a necessity for rapid, robust, easy, accurate and cost-effective methodologies for the quality control of essential oils from medicinal and aromatic plants. Rosa damascena essential oil is a high-value natural product with its unique quality properties and economic importance. This research evaluated the capability of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) techniques combined with chemometrics for determination of the authenticity of R. damascena essential oil. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were successfully employed with 100% accuracy for discrimination of authentic R. damascena essential oil samples from fraudulent commercial samples. Consistent results were obtained by FTIR, Raman and GC–MS techniques. Two of twenty commercial samples were determined as authentic R. damascena essential oil samples using the three analytical techniques. Findings showed that FTIR and Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometrics could be used as reliable, robust, rapid, accurate and low-cost analytical techniques for quality evaluation of R. damascena essential oil.