In wheat and flour processing, the quality control needs quick analytical tools for predicting physical, rheological, and chemical properties. In this study, near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy combined with artificial neural network (ANN) was used to predict the flour quality parameters that are protein content, moisture content, Zeleny sedimentation, water absorption, dough development time, dough stability time, degree of dough softening, tenacity (P), extensibility (L), P/G, strength, and baking test (loaf volume and loaf weight). A total of 79 flour samples of different wheat varieties grown in different regions of Turkey were chemically analyzed, and the results of both NIR spectrum (400-2,498 nm) and chemical analysis were used to train/test the network by applying various ANN architectures. Prediction of protein, P, P/G, moisture content, Zeleny sedimentation, and water absorption in particular gave a very good accuracy with coefficient of determination (R (2)) of 0.952, 0.948, 0.933, 0.920, 0.917, and 0.832, respectively. The results indicate that NIR combined with the ANN can successfully be used to predict the quality parameters of wheat flour.