Incorporation of defatted apple seeds in chewing gum system and phloridzin dissolution kinetics

Gunes R., Palabiyik I., TOKER Ö. S., Konar N., Kurultay S.

JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING, vol.255, pp.9-14, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 255
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2019.03.010
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.9-14
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Apple seeds are among the major natural sources of antioxidants and can be used in various industries. In this regard, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and individual phenolic compounds analyzes of defatted apple seed flours were firstly done in our study. According to these analyzes, total phenolic content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of defatted seed flours were determined between 2861 and 5141 mg GAE/kg defatted seed, 21.45-43.56 mu mol, and 291.50-391.79 mu mol Trolox/g defatted seed, respectively. It was observed that the content of phloridzin represented 52-67% and 75-83% of the total phenolics that measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and HPLC method, respectively. In the second part, chewing gums including defatted seeds were prepared and characterized in terms of phloridzin dissolution. The novel model described dissolution kinetics of phloridzin from chewing gum better than Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The results demonstrated that 5 min was enough for the dissolution of almost all phloridzin (88.43-96%) determined by centrifugation method and according to the model parameters, the chewing gum formulation can be optimized for providing controlled dissolution. In conclusion, chewing gum could be a suitable delivering material for phloridzin uptake, and apple seeds, a valuable agricultural by-product, could be evaluated in this way.